Foreign direct investment (FDI) worldwide, with particular emphasis on the new European Union member states (according to UNCTAD) 2011 was the 2nd year of increasing global FDI flows, despite the economic crisis. What is more, the foreign direct investments flow surpassed the 2005-2007 pre-crisis average. The FDI flow in 2011 equalled to USD 1.5 trillion, compared to USD 1.3 trillion in 2010 (change by 16%).
However, the FDI level is still 15 percent below the pre-crisis average and 23% below the record level of USD 2 trillion recorded in 2007. According to UNCTAD,
one could observe increasing FDI inflows across all major economic groupings in 2011. For the second year in a row developing and transition economies accounted for over 50% of global FDI flows reaching their record high of $777 billion. Developed countries, mainly the
EU, North America and Japan have traditionally remained the main source of FDI. They are responsible for $1,24 trillion of FDI outflows. The value of FDI inflows to the 12 new EU members was USD 36.7 billion, slightly exceeding the flows in 2010. Among the new EU member states Poland, which has recorded the highest level of FDI inflow, was followed by the Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.
In 2011 Polish Statistical Office (GUS) recorded in Poland 24 910 companies with foreign capital, 7.9% more than in 2010. Among 1,536 new entities with foreign capital the majority (1 239 companies) were greenfields. Among all the companies, the major group (84.4%) were small companies, i.e. those employing up to 49 people. The greatest importance,
however, had 1 219 big companies (employing over 250 persons), which accounted for 52% of share capital and 71.9% of employment. The most of entities conducted business activity related to trade; repair of motor vehicles (28.0%), manufacturing (20.1%), real estate activities (9.5%) and construction (9.2%).
In 2011 the companies polled by GUS employed 1 566 500 people. The greatest number, 1126 486 persons, was employed by the biggest companies. The most numerous group among all (almost 50% of all employees) worked in manufacturing companies, while 24% were employed in trade and repairs.
As in previous years, PAIiIZ team conducted a study among entities with foreign capital. The participating companies ranged from the largest foreign enterprises that invested in Poland in the past years to nascent companies that have invested capital in Poland for the first time.Altogether 1470 foreign investors from 54 countries were included in the List of Major Foreign Investors in Poland. These investors were in control of 2,318 corporations registered in Poland. The most numerous group were investors from Germany (332), the Netherlands (129) and the United States (164). Detailed information on investors from specific countries is presented in tables throughout this publication.